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Website of
Alexander Aswir
www.aswir.ru


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Hello!


I glad to meet you and hope that our acquaintance will be useful. It would be desirable to know who are you and what are you thinking of? A little about myself. I was born in 1943, began to analyse philosophical texts (making extracts and comments) since 1980 and independently published several brochures with small number of copies in 1998-2005. As for my conviction, I am a finished materialist: believe neither in god nor in devil nor in my immortal soul, but believe in the common material base of all things. At the same time, I am opponent of empirical materialism limited the reality by empirical things and sure that behind them exists the primary protomatter omnipresent, nonmechanical and nonempirical, changes in which is strictly determined. The website Neomaterialism destined for popularization and discussion of ideas of nonempirical materialism. Key words and thematics analyzed here are: philosophy, metaphysics, neomaterialism, materialistic Absolute, nonempirical protomatter, ether, amer, amerism, cosmic eon, absolute determinism, eternal returning. All these concepts are used non-standardly or for the first time, so their brief definitions are given below (see GLOSSARY). And the last. It is often said that views of theists demand reverence. Undoubtedly. But views of atheists demand the same reverence too. Clericals and God-seekers never had monopoly to truth or spirituality. Certainly, the man founded his own God deserves huge respect. But, perhaps, the man who dares to remain in the Universe quite alone deserves even greater respect [see]. I think all philosophers, no matter theists or atheists, must learn to listen each other attentively and respectfully. Sparks of truth flash everywhere. In my opinion, an original object of research of any philosophy, both idealistic and materialistic, is the nonempirical Absolute, common base of all empirical reality. The materialistic version of the Absolute offered here is not some revelation. It is one of possible attempts of its interpretation. No more. I sincerely wish you to find something interesting in this website. Good luck in your search of Truth.

Offers, advices, questions, remarks, objections, criticisms, claims
send to the address:
 filaswir.ru

Alexander Aswir

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Photo 11.8.2008.





This website has arisen in March 2006 and contains my speculations about the material Absolute, omnipresent nonempirical protomatter which consists of its not moving elements (amers) forming both moving substance and emptiness. I speak about mental modelling and then technical designing of this essentially not observable material Ultimate which is inaccessible to any experiment and which anybody never obviously will not see. Full names of the works placed here and their summaries are given below.




WEBSITE PAGES


1.  HomePage [83 B] R/E.

2. Search of the materialistic Absolute:

     • Amerism (antique sources of neomaterialism) [383 B] R.

     • Back to Demokritos (protomatter and its elements) [387 B] R.

     • Materialistic interpretation of Being Parmenides [240 B] R.

3. The concept of absolute determinism:

     • The basic problems of determinism [189 B] R.

     • Total attack on a determinism [253 B] R.

     • Necessary conditions of Eternal Returning [374 B] R.

4. Resources of the nonmechanical world:

     • Big Bang alternative (dilemma) [340 B] R.

     • A word in advocacy of the ether (collected articles) [314 B] R/E.

     • Conway's game Life [82 B] R.

5. Nonmaterialistic versions of the Absolute:

     • The religious Absolute (critical notes) [387 B] R.

     • The mathematical Absolute (critical notes) [216 B] R.

     • The empty Absolute (philosophy of Nonbeing) [387 B] R.

     • Absolute-Chaos (synergetics and postmodernism) [323 B] R.

6. Overcoming of dialectic materialism:

     • Border of dialectics [400 B] R.

     • New look at the philosophy and metaphysics [435 B] R.

7. Online libraries and publications [80 B] R.

8. Poetry:

     • The anthology of Russian poetry [366 B] R.

     • Marina Tsvetayeva's verses [182 B] R.

     • Russian songs [275 B] R.



ANNOTATIONS

In all listed above web pages I the supporter of nonempirical materialism try to find out the nature and features of the common base of all empirical world: omnipresent, not moving, nonempirical protomatter. It is supposed, this protomatter consists of amers filling all space in regular intervals, identical, smallest elements in which take place the discrete, nonmechanical, absolutely determined process. Speculative-hypothetical character of the works placed here does not cause any doubts. Moreover, all of them not only were not reviewed anywhere, but actually never seriously not discussed that in itself is their serious demerit. At the end of each web page is placed the common dictionary of terms used by me in borders of neomaterialism (amerism). All references [see] give the additional information at prompting the cursor (no click!).



Amerism (antique sources of neomaterialism) R.
It is stated the hypothesis about presence of a common line in development of early ancient philosophy and nontraditional interpretations of Anaximander's apeiron, Parmenides' being and Demokritos' amers. In particular, it is given the materialistic interpretation of Parmenides' being and its metaphysical model (set of amers). It is offered a new definitions of philosophy and metaphysics: philosophy the doctrine about nonempirical Absolute, metaphysics the doctrine about elements of Absolute. As examples of materialistic metaphysicses are atomism and amerism. The idealism has no its metaphysics and offers in exchange at the best a some hierarchy, such as Plato's ideas or Leibniz' monads.

Back to Demokritos (protomatter and its elements) R.
The modern materialist should return to objective, pre-Socratic vision of the world, understand the person from the nature, instead of the nature from the person. But for this purpose him should realize that observable is not attribute real, that in the base of the nature lays essentially not observable protomatter. Positivism and marxism deny an power of existence of not observable things. As an object of research of any real philosophy is nonempirical Absolute, positivism and marxism are not originally philosophical systems. Any experimental philosophy does not exist. All empirically accessible objects are studied with special sciences, but not philosophy. Neomaterialism the philosophical doctrine about nonempirical material Absolute supplements and concretizes its metaphysics (amerism), the doctrine about elements of material Absolute amers. The similar point of view is doubtless continuation of materialistic line Demokritos, aspiring to understand complex of simple, various of uniform. Due to him, we today can assert: evolution goes from simple to complex and hence initial, early forms of being should be simple, not numerous and unified.

The basic problems of a determinism R.
Determinism is the doubtless attribute of materialism, therefore all difficulties of the concept of a determinism are difficulties of the materialism. In neomaterialism object of realization of an absolute determinism serves ubiquitous nonempirical protomatter the set of filling all space amers. The discrete nonmechanical process take place in set of amers is determined absolutely. Secondary empirical level of reality is determined partly. Only here arises a casual events, a power of choice and free will of a person based on it. Only here the new appears and the old disappears.

Total attack on a determinism R.
Denying existence of the uniform nonmechanical base of the empirical world, it is impossible to combine well an absolute determinism and freedom of will of the person. Therefore any philosopher limiting the being by observable things (positivist, marxist, existentialist, postmodernist etc.) simply postulates supplementing each other existence of necessity and chance. It is necessary to recognize that any particular points of strictly determined process dialectical leap in marxism, bifurcations in synergetics are equivalent to a notorious religious miracle and are only illusion of an explanation. In neomaterialism concepts of necessity and chance are carried, have different objects of the realization. The primary uniform material Essence (the set of nonempirical amers) is determined absolutely, completely, without alternative; the secondary world of the various empirical things basing it is determined relatively, partly, ambiguously. The freedom of will of the person appears later from this ambiguity of the secondary empirical world.

Necessary conditions of Eternal Returning R.
Friedrich Nietzsche correctly thinked that the soul is connected with our body and dies together with it souls are mortal, as bodies. To escape from this hopelessness allows only the materialistic concept of Eternal Returning. However Eternal Returning at Nietzsche is not the reliable basis as him will to authority and struggle of all against all cannot generate cyclic process in the universe. In neomaterialism object of realization the concept of Eternal Returning is Cosmic Eon, closed in itself, limited in space and consisting of enormous, but accounting number of amers. Periodic recurrence of the process occuring in it conducts to inevitable recurrence of each of us as small, but an obligatory part of this process. The concept of Eternal Returning promises each of us eternal life in the form of infinite recurrences of his present life, and it is especially important for the materialist outside of all conjectures about independent existence of immortal souls. All our resurrections occur automatically, irrespective of our desires, merits and behaviour in this life. Thus our inevitable death loses the fatal-final shape and from a subject of cosmic sadness and mystical horror turns to an episode of our eternally repeating life. It gives rise to new type of ethics. If all comes back again what acts do not make, all of them will inevitably be repeated in your following life. Therefore, instead of former ethical maxima inverted in the past (make only those acts about which you will not repent afterwards), arises new maxima inverted in the future (make only those acts which you will want to repeat). Remember: you build the own eternal life youself and it is impossible to correct anything afterwards. You will not have any other life. You always will have only this life.

Big Bang alternative R.
Instead of present, mechanistic explanation of red displacement in spectra of distant galaxies by constant expansion of the universe, offers a hypothesis about constant growth of its scalar gravitational potential and connected with it identical increase of speed of all processes observable by us. As speed of light is finite, we in this case during each moment of the present shall see the past of distant galaxies in which their gravitational potential and, means, frequencies which they radiated were less modern. Other interesting corollary of such hypothesis: in a visible picture of the universe there is a constant gradient of gravitational potential and appropriate to it the unique massless (temporal) gravitational field always directed from the observer to periphery. This ubiquitous temporal gravitation supplements usual local gravitation of heavy bodies and allows to ground in any measure an Einstein's cosmological constant Λ. Hypothesis about constant growth of gravitational potential of vacuum is not connected in any way to the mechanical concept and can become afterwards (if will pass fire of criticism) worthy alternative of the Big Bang. In a basis of such approach lays amerism metaphysics of the discrete nonmechanical world in which any changes of the spatial metrics are obviously impossible. Thus, the assumed cosmological dilemma is those: red displacement in spectra of galaxies is possible to explain either constant increase in distances between them on the basis of Doppler's effect, or constant increase of gravitational potential of vacuum on the basis of Einstein's effect of 1907.

A word in advocacy of ether (the collection of articles) R/E.
Two things crisis of mechanical models of an ether and amateurish attacks of their authors on Einstein's theory relativity generated denying the ether concept by scientific community. People developing ether theories have no relation to a modern science and, as a rule, have no suitabl education. The majority of physicists thinks, that the mention of an ether testifies to illiteracy of the author [see]. However refusal from the ether concept is impossible: ...The space is impossible without an ether... [see]; ...We cannot do without an ether in theoretical physics... [see]. From a position of amerism, the ether is deep, nonmechanical and nonempirical level of reality, the discrete ubiquitous protomatter, the set of amers filling all space, not observable, not moving and forming both moving particles and emptiness. How in such absolutely firm, not deformable ether it is possible inertial movement? Why presence of such ether does not contradict a principle of a relativity? I have tried to give answers to these and similar questions at philosophical, metaphysical and physical levels. Therefore the given web page, probably, will interest not only the philosopher and metaphysics, but also physics.

Conway's game Life R.
In borders of neomaterialism and its metaphysics (amerism), the materialistic Absolute to represent a set of amers, not moving elements of the ubiquitous nonempirical protomatter. One of two-dimensional illustrations of such discrete, absolutely firm, nonmechanical protomatter can serve J.Conway's game Life. Probably, our world in the deep basis just also reminds the world of Conway's game with its discrete, strictly determined, irreversible process. Modern program development of this game helps to understand, how from primary arises secondary, from monotonous various, from simple complex, from old new, from not observable observable, from not moving moving, from necessary casual. Using this program, you can observe of huge variety of dynamic structures arising in this game and discrete nonmechanical changes occuring in them.

The religious Absolute (critical notes) R.
In neomaterialism irreconcilable antinomy god exists god does not exist is transformed to constructive dilemma about nature and features of the undoubtedly existing nonempirical Absolute (if the god does not exist, what exists instead of him?). Neomaterialist can investigate now various versions of the Absolute, in particular, a huge layer of theological literature, to understand what he deals with. During different epoch on role of the Absolute pretended Gesiod's Chaos, Thales' Water, Anaximander's Apeiron, Lao-tzi's Tao, Anaximenes' Air, Geraclitus' Logos-Fire, Pythagoras' Numbers, Parmenides' Being, Demokritos' Amers, Plato's Ideas, Plotinus' One, Tomas' God, Spinosa's Substance, Leibniz' Monads, Fichte's Ego, Hegel's Absolute Idea, Schopenhauer's Will, Bergson's Intuition, etc. This is far not full list of those versions from which neomaterialist can hope to take something for itself, to investigate materialistic Absolute.

The mathematical Absolute (critical notes) R.
In the given work I am investigated version of the Absolute which beginning goes back to Pythagoras, trying to understand this generating and organizing basis as an common Principle, mathematical Law, ideal Number which ostensibly reign over the world, move all real and transform disordered Chaos into ordered Space. But if the Absolute has mathematical nature that the mathematician can learn it only. It conducts to absolutization of formal point of view in damage of constructive one, to refusal of metaphysics, picturesque thinking and a discrediting of materialism. We should remember Lenin's phrase: For machists that circumstance that these physics limit the theory to system of the equations there is a refutation of materialism: the equations and all here, any matter, any objective reality, one symbols [see].

The empty Absolute (philosophy of Nonbeing and its criticism) R.
Occurrence of the doctrine about a fundamental role of Nonbeing was not casual event but was a part of radical attempts to get rid of any Substance, material or spiritual, to transform it into Nothing. In all modern so-called empirical philosophies (positivism, marxism, existentialism, postmodernism and others similar isms) take place transformation, discrediting, destruction of concepts being, reality, matter, substance, essence. The matter is abstraction, materialist Engels has managed to repeat after Hegel. There is no object outside subject, assert all idealists since Fichte. Outside of the subject does not exist anything, modern philosophers speak. And what is there? Outside of the subject there is only a nonbeing (nonexistence, nonentity, nothing, absence, emptiness, zero) primarily and initially. Nonbeing is that Absolute which has generated all rest such the essence of philosophy of Nonbeing. Lenin clearly names the author of similar views: Berkeley quite definitely speaks that the matter is nonentity (nonexistent essence...), that the matter is a nothing... [see]. Neomaterialism is a philosophy of Being opposing to philosophy of Nonbeing.

Absolute-Chaos (synergetics and postmodernism) R.
The collection of citations of various authors, giving some representation about last trends of an idealistic philosophical fashion empty, noisy and far from sphere interests of any real philosophy. The postmodernism has not given answers to the main questions of being, but has confused affair so, that any bosh and folly now can be named postmodernist philosophy [see]. All this so! However we should understand that similar pejorative estimations concern to emotional sphere. But the original researcher is obliged to search positive in any philosophical phenomenon including the philosophy of Chaos considering one as the common base of all empirical reality.

Borders of dialectics (overcoming of dialectical materialism) R.
The dialectical materialism is a passing version of materialism and gradually leaves from historical arena. One of principal causes of it is its obvious empirical character. Limiting being by observable things, the dialecticalal materialism has been compelled to recognize the unlimited nature of dialectic contradictions. It does not understand that borders of secondary, empirical and certainly contradictory world are simultaneously and borders of dialectics. The common nonempirical base of all empirical world, primary ubiquitous protomatter is strictly determined and therefore is not contradictory and dialectical. At such approach all so-called objective dialectics turns from the driving force of the all reality to the way of overcoming of conflicts of secondary and contradictory empirical world.

Absolute materialism (overcoming of dialectical materialism) R.
Similarly to all other forms of empiricism, the dialectical materialism nowadays has lost the right on a rank of philosophy as any philosophy deals not with the secondary empirical world, but with its base, nonempirical Absolute. It allows to rethink critically sights of the dialectical materialists recognizing empirical character of all reality, to take from them all most valuable and to offer in exchange the new form of materialism absolute materialism. The version of material Absolute propagandized on this site forms new philosophical concept absolute materialism, i.e. the materialism supposing existence of material Absolute (ubiquitous nonempirical protomatter consisting of its elements amers). Thus, the absolute materialism is the philosophical and metaphysical doctrine about nonempirical material Absolute and its elements. And it in turn essentially changes modern opinion for materialistic philosophy and metaphysics.

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GLOSSARY


  • Absolute an ultimate deep reality, an uniform nonempirical base of all empirical world. The nonempirica Absolute exists outside of the empirical world and does not interact with it. Absolute is primary, self-sufficing and independent of something other basis; all rest is secondary in relation to it and without it does not exist. Absolute is ineradicable, it is everywhere and always, it cannot be more or less. All unessential that can be or can not be, that can be in the given place more or less, is not Absolute. The idealistic Absolute is highest and most complex level of reality a god, spirit, space mind, creator, person, absolute-subject the mysterious basis, inaccessible to our knowledge, but accessible to our entreaty and a prayer which interferes with our vain affairs constantly or from time to time. On the contrary, the materialistic Absolute is a lowest and elementary level of reality ineradicable, not moving, essentially not observable protomatter, the absolute-object (more exact absolute-objectoprocess) any appeals and references to which are useless completely. The materialistic Absolute there is no neither mind, nor memory, will, purposes, intentions. Materialistic Absolute is Tao which all defines but decides nothing. It is determined completely and does not have choice. It exists on that party of good and evil. The materialistic Absolute is the Universal Machine (perfect, self-sufficient, closed in itself, extremely simple and therefore cognizable, indifferent to fates of its creations and, moreover, not suspected about their existence) which permanent work is strictly determined. The structure and features of work of this Machine are real subjects of research of neomaterialism, new materialistic philosophy and metaphysics.

  • Amer a very small (much less electron) element of omnipresent, ineradicable, nonmechanical and nonempirical protomatter. The amer does not exist separately, outside other amers. It has neither mass, nor charge, nor spin, nor any other physical characteristics. The amer is not a subject to action of any physical forces including gravitation one, it does not move or deform. It always exists in one of several states (probably in two only: black and white, Yin and Yang, A and B, 0 and 1) very small standard time interval <<10^-23 sec. and changes these states by jump under the action of small number of nearest (adjacent) amers. Here a little more detailed description of amers:
    • Amer an indivisible, not deformable, not capable to move object with the sizes << 10–13 c.
    • The set of amers fills in all space without imposings and intervals (emptiness are not present).
    • Number of amers in unit of volume everywhere and always equally.
    • Amer does not appear and does not disappear, but always is in one of several possible states.
    • Possible states of everyone amer are identical.
    • Everyone amer is in any state a time unit << 10–23 sec., then as a result of interaction with the nearest (adjacent) amers, it either jump changes its state or remains in the same state the following time unit.
    • The subsequent state of everyone amer is unequivocally defined by its present state and the present state adjacent to it amers by the certain uniform and constant rule (the local law).
    • Adjacent amers change the states simultaneously.
    • Outside set of amers nothing exists.

    The amer is an not observable material object. In existence of such object there is nothing mystical: in fact observable only that influences on our sense organs or on their continuation our devices. Everyone amer interacts exclusively with the nearest to it amers and does not interact with any other objects. Therefore a state of separate amer, state of everyone amer, state of all set of amers are not observable. Before us is the primary, essentially not observable level of reality, a class of ubiquitous not observable objects which form all secondary observable things, but nevertheless do not interact with them. It is supposed, that in set of amers all elementary particles are periodically repeating ourselves dynamic structures, and all its features (absolute speed, a half-life period, mass, charge, spin etc.) display features of such structures. The sizes of these structures and speed of periodic processes occuring in them are strictly adhered to the sizes of amer and speed of discrete nonmechanical process take place in set of amers. Space-time scales of amer, number its adjacent, number of its possible conditions and the concrete local rule determining its subsequent state are unknown and demand specification. Differently, amerism is insufficiently concretized metaphysical hypothesis offering the whole models class of ubiquitous nonempirical protomatter. One of such models may be will manage well to describe our world. But may be no. The well-known Conway's game Life is one of concrete two-dimensional illustrations of the discrete, nonmechanical, absolutely determined process in the set of amers.

  • Amerism metaphysics of neomaterialism, more successive than atomism doctrine about deep structure of the empirical world. Atomism asserts that the world consists of moving atoms and emptiness. Amerism assumes: both moving atoms and emptiness consist of the filling whole space, unobservable, immovable, not deformable amers which change their internal essences (states) by jumps. The set of amers is a last cause and deep base of all other, it forms everything, outside it nothing exists, including emptiness. Here all self-identical moving corpuscles represent dynamic structures in set of amers. Any features of elementary particles their mass, charge, spin, absolute speed, etc. are defined by features of their internal structure. The structure of moving on ether electron differs from structure of unmoved electron (accurately, the structure of particles defines their absolute speed) but these differencis are outside observable.

  • Astral numbers (have no any relation to cabbala, esoterica, occultism, magics, mysticism, theosophy) the characteristic of finite discrete pluralities; they have not the analogue in continuum. The astral number represents to a state of a finite set of amers (state of the Cosmic Eon). The sequence of astral numbers characterizes the occuring there discrete process submitting to some local law strictly determined and irreversible. The notation of astral number is equal to quantity of possible states of separate amer, and the quantity of signs of astral number is equal to quantity of amers in the Cosmic Eon. Each astral number has one following number, however can have more than one previous or have not it at all. Let's remind that all natural numbers (except 1) have one next and one previous number and display the quantitative aspect of reality (the number of coins in your purse, the scalar potential in a given point, etc.) Astral numbers have not relation to quantitative aspect of reality, but having lost this function they represent a state of all finite and closed in itself set of amers, i.e. a state of the Cosmic Eon. Three positions follow from here. 1) Appearance of astral number differs nothing from natural one. It means that sequences of astral numbers generate some strange, unknown earlier jumping sequences of pseudo-casual natural numbers which do not have generating function but nevertheless are given definitely. In particular, all such sequences are given definitely only in one direction. 2) As possible states of amer can consider as very simple and universal alphabet, a state of the Cosmic Eon turns in word, and sequence of its states (sequence of words) in text. And each word generates the strictly certain text. It allows to interpret in a new fashion not only the well-known Bible statement: In the beginning was the Word, but also to find a share of true in the modern thesis of postmodernism: The world is the text. 3) Sequences of astral numbers and appropriate to them sequences of natural numbers form text. Well-known that any text can be used for the coding of information. The dream of anyone cryptographer to receive simple sequence of pseudo-casual numbers and with its help to hide the contents of transmitted information. The discrete strictly determined process in the finite set of amers (in the Cosmic Eon) and sequences of astral numbers appropriate to it realize this dream in some measure.

  • Being the same as existence. The any being always is a being-process, an objectoprocess. Neomaterialist can distinguish three essentially various level of a being: 1) primary the Being of the nonempirical material Absolute; 2) secondary the being of empirically accessible things; 3) tertiary the human existence, consciousness, ego-being. My being has arisen from the being of empirical things, and this last from the Being of the nonempirical Absolute. My nonexistence does not suppose the disappearance of empirical world, and nonexistence of all empirical world (such it is possible!) does not suppose the disappearance of the nonempirical Absolute. Tertiary and secondary levels of reality can to be or not to be under certain conditions. The primary level of reality exists always and everywhere, outside of any conditions. The Absolute has only a Being, its Nonbeing is not present. Only this nonempirical Being of the Absolute is an original subject of philosophy and metaphysics.

  • Cosmic Eon finite part of the infinite universe, secluded in itself, limited to very big space scales, inaccessible now to any outside influences of nearest Cosmic Eons, adjacent to it and consequently independent of them. The Cosmic Eon is limited not only from above, and also from below, as consists of indivisible ames. The Eon contains very large however finite number of amers which discrete changes are determined absolutely. Therefore the Cosmic Eon has very large but finite number of possible states which discrete changes are determined absolutely. That means, the Cosmic Eon is limited not only in space but in time too and under certain conditions after a gigantic number of steps the state of the Eon and all its further development will repeat. As for neomaterialist outside of a set of amers nothing exists, and ties of our soul with our body is indissoluble, we with you in this case also shall repeat inevitably. Some time all will repeat. Thus, in borders of neomaterialism (a teaching about existence of the Cosmic Eon, finit and absolutely determined) the idea of Eternal Returning receives some basis. It does not need nobody's intervention including the God itself. Moreover, the Eternal Returning is incompatible with presence of the God, which constantly or from time to time interferes to a course of natural events and makes miracles. If there is the Eternal Returning, such God is unnecessary. And on the contrary, if there is such God, the Eternal Returning is impossible. With these positions if to recognize that our being (life, presence) is a blessing, and our nonbeing (death, absence) is a misfortune any miracle, i.e. extraneous interference in a course of absolutely determined process in the Cosmic Eon would turn to the greatest misfortune, as would eliminate an power of our recurrence completely. The casual event in strictly determined world is equivalent to a miracle, therefore casual change of a state even one amer for all huge history of development of the Cosmic Eon can result to the general space catastrophe.

    The hypothesis known already to antiquity about identity of the smallest and the biggest helps speculative designing of Cosmic Eon. In our case it means that amer and Cosmic Eon is same: amer is Eon from the outside, Eon is amer from the inside. Amer has state-process isolated and limited on time. Cosmic Eon has being-process isolated and limited on time. If to assume that amer has two possible states (Yin and Yang), then Cosmic Eon also has two possible beings: Yin-being and Yang-being. At the end of isolated state-process amer for one moment becomes accessible to influence of amers adjacent to it, as a result its new state (Yin or Yang) appears. At the end of isolated being-process in Cosmic Eon for very small time becomes accessible to influence of Cosmic Eons adjacent to it, as a result its new Yin-being or Yang-being appears. Figuratively it looks so: windows of Cosmic Eon open, old being of Eon comes to an end (doomsday comes), its new being begins, windows close, Eon again becomes secluded, inaccessible external influences and absolutely determined, i.e. finds its Yin-being or Yang-being. From this absolutely determined being-process it is impossible to take out its any part, for example what corresponds to my being. My unique ego (my consciousness, my soul) is a necessary part of this being-process and outside of it does not exist. If to consider that we with you live in Yin-being, then each of us will be inevitable to return each time together with its returning.

  • Cosmology of amerism to be made on existence in the deep base of the world omnipresent nonempirical protomatter, outside of which do not exist neither space nor time. This protomatter forms both moving substance and emptiness, consists from identical not moving amers and represents filling all space absolutely firm, not deformable body where any changes of the spatial metrics are obviously impossible. However the time (temporal) metrics there can change, as it depends from gravitational potential of vacuum, which in turn displays speed of the some base periodic process event in it and the speeds of periodic processes of all elementary particles connected to it. Certainly, all this is metaphysics of amerism. In cosmology of amerism any expansion of space does not occur, red displacement in spectra of the distant galaxies to be explaind not growth of the sizes of the universe, but very slow growth of its scalar gravitational potential (growth of gravitational potential of vacuum). It conducts to locally not observable increase in speed of all physical processes which, however, owing to the limited speed of light, becomes observable on the big space distances. Peering into cosmic long ways off, we look in the past with its smaller gravitational potential and, accordingly, its slower processes. But it means that in a visible picture of the world there is a gradient of gravitational potential and appropriate to it a unique temporal (massless) gravitational field of the empty universe. This ubiquitous temporal gravitation supplements usual local gravitation of heavy bodies and allows to ground in any measure an Einstein's cosmological constant Λ. Thus, the temporal cosmology of nonmechanical world in which there are not changes of the spatial metrics, but there are changes temporal metrics, pretend to a role of alternative of the Big Bang and, I hope, can compete to it afterwards.

  • Eternal Returning an assumption known already to antiquity about exact recurrences of all real including each of us through very big time intervals (The Cosmic Year). Thus, eternal life of any man (as well as any other creation) is possible not as a kind of other way of his being (reincarnations or any forms of beyond the grave existence), and only as Eternal Returning to the same life, to the same destiny. Necessary conditions of Eternal Returning are absolute determinism and limited number of possible states in the Cosmic Eon. It means, that the concept of a continuity is incorrect and that our Universe-Eon is finite and discrete, i.e. is limited both from above, and from below. The hypothesis of Eternal Returning is completely materialistic, incompatible with presence of the god interfering in our destinies and is opposed to any belief in independent existence of human souls. Besides this hypothesis of the Big Cycle allows to ask about its beginning and the end that, in particular, provokes the occurrence of materialistic eschatology. The belief in Eternal Returning of our temporal being learns us to not be afraid of the death and is the materialistic version of a general comforting belief in our Eternal Life. It deprives religious idea of a sin and punishment and therefore is deeply democratic. Here there is no justice, every sinner and just are equally necessary and therefore will return again inevitable. Materialistic Absolute is not the judge to its own creations and does not see distinction between worth and worthless, moral and immoral. Shake off that dream of personality, and you will see that good and evil are identical in the Absolute [see]. Idea of Eternal Returning is great idea, Nietzsche spoke about it only whisper not without reason. In 1917 on a verdict of the French military court it has been executed Mata Hari. Speak that before death she has smiled to soldiers aimming at her, has sent them an air kiss and has told: Farewell, gentlmen! I am sorry to trouble you every time. Up to a new meeting in the future life. If it so, then she knew about Eternal Returning more any of us and therefore we can speak leaving this world not farewell but good-bye, up to a next meeting in the new Cosmic Eon. The death as final disappearance does not exist. Our death as well as our life is the temporary and repeated phenomenon.

  • Determinism asserts: identical reasons always cause identical consequences and each state of any isolated system has the unique following state (in immortal Laplace`s formulation: The present state of the Universe is consequence of its previous state and reason of following one). The value of determinism consists in its mono-variant character: states of any isolated system and their changes are determined in one possible way only. States vary, laws on which they vary remain constant. Any attempts to replace mono-variant determinism with some multi-variant, probabilistic, statistical interpretations are the refusal of the very essence of it, its mono-variant nature. Determinism does not know some exceptions, Epicurus' clinamen or Prigozhin's bifurcations. If in the Cosmic Eon for all huge history of its development there was even one casual event, the concept of determinism is incorrect. Determinism is the doubtless attribute of materialism. It is necessary to recognize: all opponents of the rigid determinism are opponents of materialism. Yes, the rigid determinism is in deep crisis today, it is incompatible with empirical materialism and the mechanical picture of the world. This, however, does not mean that we should refuse determinism, but means that we should refuse empirical materialism. Here the basic idea is those. The absolute determination is possible only in primary level of reality, in the nonempirical material Absolute. It is realized in set of extremely simple objects not moving and not observable amers. A secondary level of reality, the empirical world of various things is determined partly. A casual event, clinamen, bifurcation, power of choice and based on it free will of a man appear in the empirical world only. Therefore the rigid determinism is not physical, but the philosophical and metaphysical concept. The basic idea here is those: to not emasculate the concept of a determinism, to not adapt it to an existing picture of the world, and, on the contrary, to believe in determinism and on its basis to replace this picture. The question should be put so: what kind of the World in which the concept of absolute determinism will be true? As it is found out, it is possible only in the limited Cosmic Eon which consist of indivisible amers. In unlimited and infinitely divided Universe the concept of absolute determinism is incorrect.

  • Irreversibility (arrow of time) the impossibility of inverted process. It takes place in the strictly determined set of amers: each state of it has only one next, however some of these states may have more than one previous state or have nothing of them at all. The direct process in a set of amers is mono-variant (has no branchings and bifurcations), while the inverted process is multi-variant (has branchings and bifurcations). If determinist admits that real process must be mono-variant, then for him the direct process in the set of amers is possible, the inverted process is impossible. This asymmetry of given fundamental process generates arrow of time. The concrete example of irreversible causal process on a plane is Conway's game Life.

  • Metaphysics the teaching about elements of the nonempirical Absolute (these elements form the set of identical in some relation objects). Metaphysics of old empirical materialism was atomism. Metaphysics of neomaterialism is amerism. The idealism has not its own metaphysics. Plato's ideas or Leibniz' monads give hierarchy, but not structure of things. The metaphysics concretizes philosophy, transforms it into the alive developing teaching, serves as a bridge between philosophy and natural sciences. The philosophy without metaphysics inevitably get into a trap of agnosticism and degenerates in empty, isolated, useless reasonings. The physics outside of metaphysics is transformed to the formal-mathematical scheme about connections of experiment, such as click a mare in a nose it will wave a tail.

  • Neomaterialism (nonempirical materialism) a philosophical-metaphysical teaching about existence of the omnipresent nonempirical protomatter and nature of its elements. In neomaterialism nothing exists outside of protomatter. Here the protomatter is primary, all rest an empirical matter (substance and various kinds of fields), emptiness, space, time, etc. is secondary, possible due to existence of omnipresent, ineradicable, self-moved (self-changed) protomatter. A nucleus of materialism the matter is primary, consciousness is secondary, the reason is modus, do not attribute of a matter, there is no subject outside of object is kept, however now all this is fair only in relation to a secondary empirical matter. In neomaterialism the reason ganes third place in hierarchy of existence and even more modest ontologic status. Certainly, it means that any independent existence of soul, spirit, reason without their material base is impossible. The basic differences of former empirical materialism and neomaterialism consist in the following.


     Materialism


     Neomaterialism

    The matter (set of empirically accessible things) is primary.
    The omnipresent nonempirical protomatter is primary, all empirically accessible things are secondary.
    Not observable does not exist, all material things are observable.
    Protomatter is essentially not observable and is outside of our influence.
    There is an emptiness.
    The emptiness does not exist, all space is equally filled nonempirical protomatter.
    All material things can move, the movement is primary form of motion (changing).
    Protomatter does not move, the movement is secondary form of motion (changing).
    The density of a matter can change.
    The density of protomatter always and everywhere is identical.
    Concept of absolute determinism is incorrect.
    Primary nonempirical protomatter is determined absolutely; the secondary world of empirical things is determined partly.
    Any nonempirical Absolute (neither ideal nor material) as the base of empirical world does not exist.
    The material Absolute (omnipresent nonempirical protomatter) is the base of empirical world.
    Philosophy is the teaching about All.
    Philosophy is the teaching about the nonempirical Absolute.
    Metaphysics is ontology, a part of philosophy.
    Metaphysics is the teaching about elements of the Absolute.
    Metaphysics of materialism is atomism and concept of continuity.
    Metaphysics of neomaterialism is amerism and concept of discreteness.
    The Universe is infinite in space and time.
    The Universe-Eon is limited in space and time.
    All is divided indefinitely.
    All consist from indivisible amers.
    All always interacts with all.
    The amer and the Cosmic Eon interact with nearest environment only from time to time.
    States of the Universe change continuously.
    States of the amer and the Cosmic Eon change discretely.
    All in the nature is similar.
    The amer and the Cosmic Eon are similar: amer is Eon outside, Eon is amer from inside.
    Infinite Evolution of the infinite Universe.
    Finite evolution of the finite Universe-Eon.
    Each thing appears once and disappears forever.
    Each thing repeats periodically (Eternal Returning).
    Each person is born once and dies forever.
    Each person and his destiny will be repeated in the new Cosmic Eon.


  • Objectoprocess indissoluble unity of object and process, i.e. something constant and changing simultaneously that remains the same, equal to itself in all its transformations. The term objectoprocess continues a line of previous materialism: there is no the matter without motion (changing) and there is no motion (changing) without matter. Unfortunately, the mechanistic views allowed to speak about quantity of movement. In this case the movement can be more or less and can not be at all; the rest (self-identity) is an absence of motion. Neomaterialism on the contrary asserts the following. 1) The rest (absence of motion or change) in the world of a material essence does not exist, here self-identity of paticles is its periodic recurrence (repeatability). All stationary and constant in microcosm is the periodic objectoprocess. It means, that proton or electron should be interpreted as very fast periodic objectoprocesses. 2) Only objectoprocesses have the real existence. That is impossible to interpret as objectoprocess does not exist really, though can be objective. For example, amers, electrons, atoms, protomatter exist really, because they can be interpreted as objectoprocesses. On the contrary, the space and time taken separately cannot be interpreted as objectoprocesses and hence does not exist really.

  • Protomatter, pramatter (primary matter, common substance, material essence) an omnipresent, ineradicable, nonmechanical, nonempirical, absolute determined base of all empirical reality, its being and nonbeing. Where we do not see anything, see emptiness, the amount of protomatter is the same as in visible and tangible things. In other words, the emptiness does not exists, the space is completely filled with an unmoved protomatter, the density of which (number of its elements in unit of volume) is identical both in emptiness and in center of neutron stars.

  • Space and time the objective concepts reflecting a presence of omnipresent changing protomatter and outside of it not existing. Thus, not the matter exists in space and time, and on the contrary terms space and time arise and become objective due to presence of protomatter. Properties of space and time represent to properties of a protomatter. For example, the discreteness of space and time reflects the existence of an omnipresent discrete protomatter and discrete changes of its states. Amerism forces to refuse any changes of spatial intervals (FitzgeraldLorentz hypothesis, a hypothesis of the expansive universe, etc.) and to be limited to changes only time intervals.

  • Philosophy is not a science about most general laws of the being, society and thinking as it asserted marxism. Moreover, philosophy is not a science at all. The subject of philosophy is neither a man nor mankind nor even the whole empirical world. Any experimental philosophy does not exist. Philosophy investigates only the primary level of reality and ways of its cognition, tries to understand not the empirical world, and its base the nonempirical Absolute (those who deny existence of such Absolute are not philosophers). Philosophy is the Absolutocognition, a speculative teaching about the nature and features of the deep nonempirical base of empirical world. All rest is the pseudo-philosophy having to the real philosophy only the indirect relation. Logic, ethics, aesthetics, axiology, philosophical anthropology, psychology, sociology, all these private philosophies of religion, culture, art, science, history, politics, authority, society all they are independent disciplines, not sections of philosophy. Certainly, these subjects are somehow connected to philosophy as give to it a material for research. However no more that. Alas, in philosophy are many be called but few chosen. The true philosophy does not interest a man and his problems, it does not teach us how to live and make correct deeds. Philosophy should get rid of anthropomorphic illusions about the cosmic Good, Wisdom, Justice and at last to recognize itself as special area of our knowledge. Philosopher as well as any other respected himself researcher is the highly expert, the expert on the Absolute. What are nature and features of the nonempirical Absolute? that is the basic question of any philosophy.

  • Ether (the materialistic Absolute, quintessence, primary substance, protomatter, a set of amers) the material medium (discrete, filling all space, absolutely firm, not deformable, nonmechanical, nonempirical) discrete changes in which are strictly determined. The elements of an ether are amers. Two-dimensional illustration of such medium is the well-know game Life by John Conway (1970). In this game the infinite plane is divided on identical cells, each of them may be in one of two possible states (black and white) and has eight adjacent cells. Four adjacent cells have common sides with the given cell; the other four the common tops. The states of all cells of this discrete plane may change simultaneously, jump, in an equal time intervals, according to the following rules (local law):

    ) the cell with a white state changes it when among its adjacent exist three cells with a black state;
    ) the cell with a black state does not change it when among its adjacent exist two or three cells with a black state.

    It is easy to see that in this game on such strictly determined rules there exists vacuum the area of white cells inside which is possible the following periodically recurring gliding structure (glider) consisting of black cells:


    This example allows to assert: 1) The moving can arise from not moving, a movement is secondary form of motion (changing). 2) The discrete nonmechanical ether (a filling all space absolutely firm body, a set of amers) does not contradict to inertial movement of elementary particles. 3) The self-identity of elementary particles reflects not their invariability, and periodic recurrence of their internal structures.

    You will see the discrete, irreversible, strictly determined processes in Conway's game with help of the program Life32 v2.16 which represents one of the most perfect versions of this game on a infinite field with changeable spacetime scales. The author of this version is Johan Bontes [see]. Having established it on the computer, you can carry out independent researches and even to pretend to a role of the god, setting (drawing with help of the computer mouse or choosing from ready) an initial state of your universe and establishing laws of its development. Having accustomed to a role of the god, you at any moment can make miracles, i.e. to interfere in a course of this strictly determined process (reasonings in this occasion can be found at numerous God-seekers in the Internet [see]).

    Observing of processes in which there are no casual events: Epicurus' clinamen, spontaneous quantum jumps, Prigozhins bifurcations, it is possible to assert the following. Process in Conway's game denies Prigozhins opinion on absence of strictly determined irreversible processes. Here it is necessary to notice, that discrete Conway's world helps to plan ways of the sanction not only a problem of a determinism and arrow of time, but also such old problems as a determinism and objectivity of casual events, a determinism and a rise of new [see]. As connection of neomaterialism (amerism) with Conway's game is undoubted, it is possible in the some, certainly very much limited sense to assert that neomaterialism is a philosophy of Conway's game Life or, more precisely, a materialistic philosophy of cellular automata. In idealistic treatments, cellular automata are considered in pythagoras-information spirit, as the mathematical programs, written by the God; the universe is a huge computer controlled by the same God (E.Fredkin, S.Wolfram, etc.). Neomaterialism, materialistic philosophy of a discrete nonmechanical ether is philosophy of the brick world of material Essence. Here the set of amers exists good in itself, initially; the discrete process in set of amers does not cope from the mysterious Center, everyone amer itself defines own following state, proceeding from own local situation.

    Game Life illustrates some features of a discrete nonmechanical ether and the discrete, nonmechanical, strictly determined processes in it. It allows not only to define a direction of search, but also to realize futility of any mechanical models of an ether. For example, the ether dynamics by V.A.Atzyukovsky or models of crystal ether with various types of mechanical deformations widely spread in the Web. Life game also help to depart from any models of ether as continuous medium in which continuous changes occur. The ether is a discrete, absolutely firm, not deformable medium in which the movement is absent. A movement is the secondary form of motion, a discrete changes in set of amers are primary, the continuity is approximation of discreteness, the world is limited in space and time and absolutely determined in the deep base these are the main positions of neomaterialism which make a new concept of an ether.

    The neomaterialism offers a new paradigm. Its basic postulate: there is an initial, essentially not observable level of a material reality. Today a few scientists will agree with this affirmation. Physicist always limited a reality to observable things. Therefore for him any philosophy (in particular, neomaterialism with amerism) is empty speculation. In his opinion, it is impossible to reduce an observable features of microobjects to their essentially not observable structure. Well, we shall agree to one minute with this opinion and recognize that amerism is useless dream today. But we should recollect that in Demokritos epoch the same dream was atomism which role in physics now is huge.

    Amerism (the metaphysics of neomaterialism) constantly develops. It allows to design an ether, offering a class of its discrete nonmechanical models, each of them generates own reality with own features. Maybe, one of these models will fit the reality of our world. Of course, this program-maximum of amerism is very far from realization. Here there is still many unsolved problems. However, as any metaphysics, amerism conducts us in darkness of researches, offers hypotheses of the certain direction and by that somehow to limit a zone of search. For instance, in the collection of aticles A word in advocacy of the ether in this website it is considered a model a cup with water where to the particle corresponds with a united periodical process, responsible for its movement and its existence. In my opinion, three suppositions follow from here: a) the mass of a particle is proportional not to quantity of a matter contained in it, and to duration of its periodic process; b) there is a discrete spectrum of speeds of particles (the principle of relativity dictates its quite certain kind). c) the discrete spectrum of speeds of particles and a discrete spectrum of their mass are somehow connected among themselves. Other example. In work Back to Demokritos in this website has been mentioned the idea of grey vacuum: a particle is structure from amers with black states, an antiparticle is the same structure from amers with white states, the vacuum is area where amers with black and white states fifty-fifty. The model grey vacuum concentrates our attention on the symmetric local laws determining the following state of everyone amer. The model a cup with water makes to look for a periodic structures in various models of a set of amers. The practical value of this hypotheses consists in definition of directions of search. It is natural, that all these speculative hypotheses demand discussion and all-round criticism.

    Today the concept of an ether (a material medium, discrete, nonmechanical, nonempirical, strictly determined) is in a stage of becoming. It should solve some important questions or finds itself on roadside of cognition. In my opinion, the following problems have vital importance. First, the ether is necessary to reconcile with principle of relativity or that the same with the theory of relativity. Any models of ether which do not meet this requirement should be rejected [see]. Second, it is necessary to find models of a discrete nonmechanical ether which would be isotropic in enough big areas. Third and this is the main point it should be find a model of a discrete nonmechanical ether suitable to a reality (it is required to specify the number of possible states of amer, the number of adjacent amers with which every amer interacts and a local law determining its following state). In other words, it is needed a concrete model of a set of amers in which some periodic structures existing there will be identical to elementary particles. For this purpose we should to see these dynamic structures essentially not observable in a reality. We can see them only in computer models of set of amers created by us. On a plane any fundamental difficulties does not arise. Here it is possible to vary number of states of amer, number its adjacent and the local law determining its following state. But how to observe of process in a set of amers in three-dimensional case really interesting us? The output is one: to represent on the monitor states of each concrete model of a set of amers in any interesting us plane. Certainly, it will demand much more powerful machines, more perfect programs and significant investments. However the game costs candles, as this money will return to us through high technologies even in case of failure. Moreover, in case of success we will can better understand not only the nature of vacuum, proton, electron and other objects of a microcosm but also to see their internal dynamic structures. It would be very desirable to look at them!

* * *

     Alexander Aswir


The page has been translated from Russian
with help of the program PROMT and
placed on this website 19.05.2007.
Last updating 20.07.2011.


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